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Hydraulic Pumps

Pumps are tools used to displace or move a fluid and impart energy to it by means of a mechanical or physical action. There are many types of pumps and they also differ when it comes to their own functions. A common thing among all the pumps is that they operate through a built pressure. One of these pumps is called hydraulic pumps.

Many machineries use hydraulic pumps, for example it is used in heavy machinery like an excavator. Machineries that are operated by hydraulic systems can also be commonly found in construction sites. Some examples include cranes and bulldozers. In fact, even car brakes use hydraulic pumps in order to function effectively.

Haldex Hydraulic Pump - 11 GPM, 2-Stage

How Hydraulic Pumps Work

Hydraulic pumps are one of the important components that hydraulic machinery have. The various hydraulic fluids such as oil and water are supplied to the hydraulic machinery with the help of a hydraulic pump. Basically, a hydraulic pump is the main tool needed in order for hydraulic machinery to work.

Hydraulic pumps operate through using the kinetic energy of flowing water in order for that water to move in a higher level reservoir. It creates a velocity of its own once the fluid enters these pumps. It does not generate a pressure but it produces the flow necessary to create a pressure depending on the load the system contains. These types of pumps exhibit an extraordinary range and capability to do their work.

Generally, hydraulic pumps work in two functions by using a mechanical action. First, its mechanical action will create a vacuum at the pump inlet which will allow atmospheric pressure to force the liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line to the pump. Second, its mechanical action will deliver this liquid to the pump outlet and will force it to the hydraulic system. Pumps can be classified as positive displacement pump and non-positive displacement pump. The hydraulic system frequently uses positive displacement pump. The pressure used in a positive displacement pump can range up to 5000 psi. These pumps function by means of forcing a volume of fluid from the pump’s inlet pressure into the pump’s discharge zone.

Types Of Hydraulic Pumps

There are different types of hydraulic pumps used in a hydraulic machine.

Gear pumps: This type of pump has a fixed displacement and external teeth. This pump is suitable for pressures below 3000psi. The advantage of this pump is that it is simple, cheap, compact and durable. On the other hand, the downside of this pump is that it has a limited pressure capability, unbalanced results in large bearing loads, can be noisy and because it is working at a constant displacement, their work is less efficient.

Vane Pumps: This type of hydraulic pumps is driven by an outside engine that rotates at a continuous speed. Regardless of how much pressure there is in the system, the same amount of fluid is pumped with each rotation. The advantage of this pump is that it simple and reliable. It also offers an option of variable displacement and has a higher pressure capability than gear pumps. This pump operates in pressures up to 180 bars. The disadvantage of this pump is that they are more complex and expensive than gear pumps.

Axial Piston Pumps: This type of hydraulic pumps contain pistons that are arranged in a circular array within a cylinder block. This cylinder block serves as its housing. The advantage of this type of pump is that it contains a variable design and it has the highest volumetric efficiency and pressure capability. It works for pressure up to 350 bars. The disadvantage is that it is more sensitive to oil contamination and it is more expensive.

Radial Piston Pumps: This type of hydraulic pumps are in contrast with axial piston pumps for the reason that it contains pistons that are arranged in symmetrical and radial direction around a drive shaft. The advantage of these pumps is that it is highly reliable, works efficiently and it creates minimum level of noise. It operates through pressures around 650 bars. The disadvantage of these pumps is its bigger radial dimensions and higher cost.

Hydraulic pumps are an indispensable feature in hydraulic machines. They play a key role in the proper functioning of machineries.

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